Core key -- Introduction to cathode material of new energy lithium battery
With the proposal of the goal of "carbon peaking, carbon neutralization" and the determination of the time to achieve it, new energy pure electric vehicles have developed rapidly in the past two years. The power core is undoubtedly the battery, and the selection of battery positive materials is the core of the core. There are many positive materials in the market, such as lithium cobalate, lithium manganate, lithium iron phosphate, lithium ternary, etc., which have their own characteristics in physical and chemical properties and performance, and are also used in different industries.
Lithium cobalate: the first commercial cathode material for lithium ion batteries. Cobalt resources are relatively poor, resulting in high prices. At the same time, cobalt is toxic. In addition, its safety performance is poor, and its capacity is relatively low, so its shortcomings are obvious. At present, lithium cobalate batteries are mainly used in digital batteries.
Lithium manganate: mainly spinel lithium manganate. Compared with lithium cobalate, it has the advantages of rich resources, low manufacturing cost, less environmental pollution and high safety performance. However, the structure of spinel is difficult to maintain integrity, and its circulation is poor.
Lithium iron phosphate: the raw materials are rich in sources, the price is relatively low compared with the previous materials, the production process also causes less environmental pollution, and the good cycle performance and high safety performance make it the first to be used in electric vehicles. However, lithium iron phosphate material has poor conductivity and low tap density, resulting in low energy density per unit volume. With the development of lithium iron phosphate technology, the current high pressure lithium iron phosphate technology is gradually mature, and the energy density increases steadily.
Ternary composite material: it is a multi metal composite oxide --- ternary material (cobalt nickel manganese+lithium). Ternary materials combine the advantages of lithium cobalate, lithium nickel oxide and lithium manganate (lithium aluminate) to form ternary eutectic, which can fully play the role of the three components. High energy density, longer endurance per unit volume, poor heat resistance, gradual dissolution at about 300 ℃, and high risk of spontaneous combustion.
Lithium manganese iron phosphate: lithium manganese iron phosphate is equivalent to the improved material of lithium iron phosphate. It has many advantages of lithium iron phosphate, and has high safety and stability. At the same time, because lithium manganese iron phosphate contains manganese, its energy density is also better, which can reach the level of ternary battery NCM523 (nickel cobalt manganese 523 ratio), but still not reach the level of NGM811 (nickel cobalt manganese 523 ratio).
Nowadays, the batteries of mainstream new energy pure electric vehicles on the market are basically ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries.
With the development of new energy pure electric vehicles, endurance is no longer the only indicator. The frequent spontaneous combustion accidents make battery safety an important consideration in selecting electric vehicles. This makes the already seemingly "backward" lithium iron phosphate technology come back to life. All manufacturers have begun to invest in further research on the development of lithium iron phosphate. The market share has increased year by year, and the market share has now slightly exceeded ternary materials. And ternary materials are also trying to remove the "flammable" hat to improve safety and reduce costs as much as possible.
In the past two years, all leading enterprises have begun to lay out the market of lithium manganese iron phosphate. As one of the improvement directions of lithium iron phosphate, it is superior to lithium iron phosphate in terms of safety and cost of ternary materials with its endurance higher than that of lithium iron phosphate, which may further change the pattern of the new energy battery industry.
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